Kidney Failure in Dogs: Signs & Causes


You probably don’t realize it, but your dog’s kidneys are much like your own kidneys. Healthy kidneys are used to dissolve, filter, and expel toxins in the body every time your dog pees. Just like your body produces toxins all day long, your dog’s body does too.

When a dog has healthy kidneys, they produce a urine that is highly concentrated. This means that copious amounts of toxins are being flushed and filtered through your dog’s kidneys, using (by comparison) a small amount of water. However, with a diseased kidney that is no longer functioning properly, increasing amounts of water are required to excrete the same amount of toxins.

When your dog seems to become overly thirsty without satiation, it can be a sign that their kidneys are damaged. Your dog’s increased thirst is because your dog is unable to keep up with drinking the amount of water needed to flush out the toxins. As a result, toxin levels elevate within the bloodstream.

Unfortunately, when your dog’s kidneys begin to fail, it means they are unable to remove waste at all. This is called renal or kidney failure. There are two forms of kidney failure dogs can suffer from, labeled acute or chronic. It is thought that about 9 in every 1,000 dogs examined suffer from chronic renal disease. It is most commonly seen in older dogs, but can still be seen in dogs of any age.

Unfortunately, when kidneys fail, it is very serious. Your dog’s kidneys help to regulate things like blood sugar, blood volume, blood pressure, blood and water composition, pH levels, and it also produces certain hormones as well as red blood cells.

However, kidney failure can happen slowly, and this can make the condition difficult to treat effectively, because by the time the symptoms have become evident, it is too late. Often a dog’s kidneys find ways to compensate for function losses, which makes it all the harder to recognize signs and symptoms early.

Causes of Kidney Failure in Dogs

There are many causes of kidney failure in dogs, including but not limited to:

causes of kidney failure in dogs

The most common causes of kidney disease are things such as:

  • Your pets age
  • Trauma
  • Inflammation
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Cancer
  • Parasites
  • Fungal, viral, and bacterial infections
  • Toxicity related to poisons or medications
  • Genetics or inherited disorders
  • Kidney stones can also cause kidney problems, infections, and more

the most common causes of kidney disease in dogs

Does Kidney Failure Affect Certain Breeds More?

Dog breeds that are most likely to experience renal failure or renal diseases are Bull Terriers, German Shepherds, English Cocker Spaniels, and Samoyeds.

what breeds are most likely to develop kidney disease

Types of Kidney Failure in Dogs

There are two types of kidney failure, labeled as acute kidney failure and chronic kidney failure. Acute kidney failure means that your pet’s kidney failure occurs suddenly. This is usually caused by severe dehydration, a urinary obstruction, or due to poison ingestion, such as ingesting human medications, anti-freeze, or toxic plants. A very strong bacterial infection can also cause kidney failure.

Sometimes a dog may have other health concerns that can cause kidney failure due to decreased blood flow to the kidneys, such as during a surgical procedure, because of heatstroke, or related to heart disease.

Chronic renal failure, on the other hand, is a slow and insidious process that usually manifests over months and sometimes even years. This is the type of failure most common in elderly dogs. Unfortunately, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not typically reversible, especially when due to aging. By comparison, the damage done by acute kidney failure can be reversible if treated quickly enough.

types of kidney failure in dogs

chronic kidney failure

Signs and Symptoms of Kidney Failure in Dogs

As stated, your dog can suffer from acute renal failure or chronic renal failure. Some symptoms for acute renal failure are:

Symptoms come on quickly and severely, without much warning. You should treat acute renal failure as an emergency because it is life-threatening, and to save your dog’s life, quick action is necessary.

Some signs of chronic kidney failure are:

  • High blood pressure
  • Bloodied urine
  • Vomiting
  • Reduced red blood cell production, causing anemia
  • Urinating at night
  • Decreased urination
  • Increased urination
  • Excessive thirst
  • Dehydration
  • Bad breath
  • Ulcers of the mouth
  • Lackluster coat
  • Reluctance to move
  • A hunched posture
  • Fluid retention in the abdomen and legs
  • Painful kidneys
  • Smaller or larger than normal kidneys

Sometimes your dog may even show slight changes in their bone structure by developing a swelling along the upper jaw which is due to imbalances in their bodies.

Unlike acute kidney failure, chronic renal failure happens much more slowly, occurring over the course of months and sometimes years. This condition is typically seen in older dogs, and usually by the time the symptoms have become obvious the condition is much harder to treat.

During chronic kidney failure, your dog’s organs stop functioning optimally, leading to slow degeneration. Other signs and symptoms of kidney failure in dogs are sudden changes in your dog’s health and well-being. If your dog begins to act sick very suddenly, this could be related to kidney failure and you should see your vet immediately.

Treatments for Kidney Failure in Dogs

A staple treatment for dogs suffering from kidney failure is fluid therapy. Because of the large amount of water that is passed out of the body when a dog’s kidneys are in distress, dehydration is common. Fluids are intended to help combat the problem of dehydration.

Withholding access to clean water because your pet may feel the need to pee a lot during the night could cause more damage than you think. Your dog needs access to fresh water around the clock, but this is especially true