non psychoactive cannabinoids 2

Non-psychoactive cannabinoids (including CBD) have been studied extensively for almost three decades in animal models, see PubMed for thousands of independent studies, just a few are cited here. 

Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects

British Journal of Pharmacology, Volume 163, Issue 7 – 19 Articles on Cannabinoids

Use of cannabinoid receptor agonists in cancer therapy as palliative and curative agents

National Cancer Institute – Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research on Animals

Antitumorigenic Effects of Cannabinoids beyond Apoptosis

Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid

Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb

Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent.

Effects of cannabidiol in animal models predictive of antipsychotic activity.

A Study of Infraspecific Flavonoid Variation of Cannabis Sativa L.

Phytocannabinoids beyond the Cannabis plant – do they exist?

A Chemotaxonomic Analysis of Cannabinoid Variation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae)

Cannabinoid and Terprnoid Reference Guide

Cannabis and Cannabis Extracts: Greater Than the Sum of Their Parts?

The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis sativa

Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol in dogs

Cannabinoids reduce the progression of Alzheimer’s disease in animals

Cannabinoid receptor type 1 and 2 expression in the skin of healthy dogs and dogs with atopic dermatitis.

Cloning and pharmacological characterization of the dog cannabinoid CB₂ receptor.

CB(1) antagonism restores hepatic insulin sensitivity without normalization of adiposity in diet-induced obese dogs.

Pharmacokinetics of the dimethylheptyl homolog of cannabidiol in dogs.

Comparative metabolism of cannabidiol in dog, rat and man.
CB₂: therapeutic target-in-waiting.

Phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids.

Chemistry and Analysis of Phytocannabinoids and Other Cannabis Constituents

Delayed disease progression in ALS mice by treatment with a cannabinoid

Cardiovascular Pharmacology Time-dependent vascular actions of cannabidiol in the rat aorta

Industrial hemp decreases intestinal motility stronger than indian hemp in mice.

Decreased endocannabinoid levels in the brain and beneficial effects of agents activating cannabinoid and/or vanilloid receptors in a rat model of multiple sclerosis.

Cannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation.

Cannabis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Hypothetical and Practical Applications, and a Call for Clinical Trials

Cannabidiol and D9-THC are neuroprotective antioxidants

Neuroprotective antioxidants from marijuana

Cannabis Relieves Lou Gehrigs Symptoms

Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology by Cannabinoids

Marijuana Slows Alzheimer’s Decline

Cannabinoids and the skeleton: from marijuana to reversal of bone loss.

Cannabinoids and bone: friend or foe?

Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling.

Role of cannabinoid 2 receptor in the development of bone cancer pain. [Chinese]

A cannabinoid 2 receptor agonist attenuates bone cancer-induced pain and bone loss.

Reduction of Bone Cancer Pain by Activation of Spinal Cannabinoid Receptor 1 and Its Expression in the Superficial Dorsal Horn of the Spinal Cord in a Murine Model of Bone Cancer Pain

Cannabis in Palliative Medicine: Improving Care and Reducing Opioid-Related Morbidity

Spinal and peripheral analgesic effects of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist AM1241 in two models of bone cancer-induced pain

Cannabinoids and bone: endocannabinoids modulate human osteoclast function in vitro.

Endocannabinoids are expressed in bone marrow stromal niches and play a role in interactions of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells with the bone marrow microenvironment.

The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in cardiovascular disease.

The endocannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease.

Marijuana Extract Helps Arthritis Pain

Rheumatoid arthritis, Cannabis based medicine eases pain and suppresses disease

Endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors in ischaemia-reperfusion injury and preconditioning.

The endocannabinoid system and energy metabolism.

The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in endocrine regulation and energy balance.

Antitumor Effects of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid, on Human Glioma Cell Lines

Discovery of agonists of cannabinoid receptor 1 with restricted central nervous system penetration aimed for treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

The cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) ameliorates insulin sensitivity in two mouse models of obesity

Cannabinoid-1 receptor inhibition prevents the reduction of 24-hour energy expenditure with weight loss.

Endocannabinoid antagonism: blocking the excess in the treatment of high-risk abdominal obesity.

Cannabinoids in eating disorders and obesity.

[Cannabinoid system and feeding regulation]. [Spanish]

Endogenous cannabinoid system as a modulator of food intake.

The endocannabinoid system and the treatment of obesity.

Endocannabinoids and food intake: newborn suckling and appetite regulation in adulthood.

[Endocannabinoid system and energy metabolism: physiology and pathophysiology]. [Italian]

Cannabinoid receptors as therapeutic targets for obesity and metabolic diseases.

Pharmacotherapeutic targeting of the endocannabinoid signaling system: drugs for obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

The endocannabinoid system, eating behavior and energy homeostasis: the end or a new beginning?

The endocannabinoid system as a link between homoeostatic and hedonic pathways involved in energy balance regulation.

Critical role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism, with phylogenetic, developmental, and pathophysiological implications.

A Comparison of the Ocular and Central Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabigerol.

A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol.

The endocannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of motor dysfunction.

The endocannabinoid system in Huntington’s disease.

Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders.

Cannabinoids and Parkinson’s disease.

Cannabinoids and neuroprotection in motor-related disorders.

Stimulation of CB1 Cannabinoid and NMDA Receptors Increases Neuroprotective Effect against Diazinon-Induced Neurotoxicity

Role of CB2 receptors in neuroprotective effects of cannabinoids.

Cannabinoids provide neuroprotection against 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity in vivo and in vitro: relevance to Parkinson’s disease.

Subcellular localization of NAPE-PLD and DAGL-α in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus by a preembedding immunogold method

Effects of a topically applied 2% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ophthalmic solution on intraocular pressure and aqueous humor flow rate in clinically normal dogs.

Cannabinoids inhibit nitric oxide production in bone marrow derived feline macrophages.

The role of cannabinoids in prostate cancer: Basic science perspective and potential clinical applications

Suppression of Nerve Growth Factor Trk Receptors and Prolactin Receptors by Endocannabinoids Leads to Inhibition of Human Breast and Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation

Antitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma

Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol.

9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Inhibits Cell Cycle Progression in Human Breast Cancer through Cdc2 Regulation

Cannabidiol inhibits tumour growth in leukaemia and breast cancer in animal studies

Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells.

Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study

[Cannabis and cannabinoids as drugs] Article in Norwegian.

Chemistry, metabolism, and toxicology of cannabis: clinical implications.

Pharmacological actions of cannabinoids.

Cannabinoids against pain. Efficacy and strategies to reduce psychoactivity: a clinical perspective.

Cannabinoid Receptors as Target for Treatment of Osteoporosis: A Tale of Two Therapies

The promise and dilemma of cannabinoid therapy: lessons from animal studies of bone disease

Marijuana in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Cannabidiol-caused depression of spinal motoneuron responses in cats.

CB2 receptor-mediated antihyperalgesia: possible direct involvement of neural mechanisms.

Evidence for novel cannabinoid receptors.

Cannabidiol in medicine: a review of its therapeutic potential in CNS disorders.

Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in CNS disease.

The neurobiology and evolution of cannabinoid signalling.

Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT(1A) somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus.

Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids.

Cannabinoid analgesia as a potential new therapeutic option in the treatment of chronic pain.

The future of cannabinoids as analgesic agents: a pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic overview.

The cannabinoid system and pain: towards new drugs?]. [French]

Vascular targets for cannabinoids: animal and human studies

Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the plant cannabinoids, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol.

Human skin permeation of Delta8-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol.

Natural cannabinoids improve dopamine neurotransmission and tau and amyloid pathology in a mouse model of tauopathy.

[The pharmacology of cannabinoid derivatives: are there applications to treatment of pain?]. [French]

Cannabidiol inhibits cancer cell invasion via upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1

Possible endocannabinoid control of colorectal cancer growth

The endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, induces cell death in colorectal carcinoma cells: a possible role for cyclooxygenase 2

The cannabinoid delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits RAS-MAPK and PI3KAKT survival signalling and induces BAD-mediated apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells

Cannabinoids inhibit N-type calcium channels in neuroblastoma-glioma cells

The cannabinoids as potential antiepileptics.

Cannabinoids: Defending the Epileptic Brain

Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures.

Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD): Can this Concept Explain Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and other Treatment-Resistant Conditions?

Marijuana treatments for autoimmune disorders

Cannabidivarin is anticonvulsant in mouse and rat.

Cannabidivarin-rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB1 receptor-independent mechanism.

Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol induces apoptosis in C6 glioma cells

Anti-tumoral action of cannabinoids: involvement of sustained ceramide accumulation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation

Inhibition of Glioma Growth in Vivo by Selective Activation of the CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor1

Cannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and cancer.

Critical appraisal of the potential use of cannabinoids in cancer management

Cannabinoids as potential new therapy for the treatment of gliomas

A Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma

Cannabinoids Inhibit the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Pathway in Gliomas

Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits cell cycle progression by downregulation of E2F1 in human glioblastoma multiforme cells

Cannabidiol Enhances the Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Human Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation and Survival

Cannabis: discrimination of “internal bliss”?

Cannabis: pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans.

The Endocannabinoid System as an Emerging Target of Pharmacotherapy

The pharmacology of cannabinoid receptors and their ligands: an overview.

Cannabinoids, immune system and cytokine network.

Targeting cannabinoid agonists for inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

Antineoplastic activity of cannabinoids.

Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells

Cannabis-induced cytotoxicity in leukemic cell lines: the role of the cannabinoid receptors and the MAPK pathway

Cannabidiol-Induced Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells : A Novel Role of Cannabidiol in the Regulation of p22phox and Nox4 Expression

Enhancing the in vitro cytotoxic activity of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in leukemic cells through a combinatorial approach

Targeting CB2 cannabinoid receptors as a novel therapy to treat malignant lymphoblastic disease

Cannabinoid receptor ligands mediate growth inhibition and cell death in mantle cell lymphoma

Expression of cannabinoid receptors type 1 and type 2 in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: growth inhibition by receptor activation

Expression and Functional Relevance of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 in Hodgkin Lymphoma

Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia T cells is regulated by translocation of Bad to mitochondria.

In vivo effects of cannabinoids on macromolecular biosynthesis in Lewis lung carcinomas

Delta-9Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits growth and metastasis of lung cancer

Marijuana Cuts Lung Cancer Tumor Growth In Half, Study Shows

Cannabinoid receptors as novel targets for the treatment of melanoma

Cannabinoid receptor-1 modulation induces apoptosis of human melanoma cells

Cannabinoids Ameliorate Pain and Reduce Disease Pathology in Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

Cannabinoids Induce Apoptosis of Pancreatic Tumor Cells via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress–Related Genes

The endocannabinoid signaling system in cancer

Cannabinoid Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis Induced by R(+)-Methanandamide and Win55,212-2 Is Associated with Ceramide Accumulation and p38 Activation in Mantle Cell Lymphoma

Cannabinoid receptor antagonists: pharmacological opportunities, clinical experience, and translational prognosis.

Introduction to secondary metabolism in cannabis

Celery, artichokes contain flavonoids that kill human pancreatic cancer cells

Interactions between dietary flavonoids apigenin or luteolin and chemotherapeutic drugs to potentiate anti-proliferative effect on human pancreatic cancer cells, in vitro

Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids

The effects of dietary flavonoids on the regulation of redox inflammatory networks

Advantages of polypharmaceutical herbal Cannabis compared to single-ingredient, synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol

Predator threat stress promotes long lasting anxiety-like behaviors and modulates synaptophysin and CB1 receptors expression in brain areas associated with PTSD symptoms.

Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study.

Cannabis Finds Its Way into Treatment of Crohn’s Disease.

Marijuana Use Patterns Among Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes.

Species-specific in vitro pharmacological effects of the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) selective ligand AM1241 and its resolved enantiomers.

Local Delivery of Cannabinoid-Loaded Microparticles Inhibits Tumor Growth in a Murine Xenograft Model of Glioblastoma Multiforme

Anti-inflammatory effects of Cannabinoid 2 Receptor activation in endotoxin-induced uveitis

Selective inhibition of FAAH produces antidiarrheal and antinociceptive effect mediated by endocannabinoids and cannabinoid-like fatty acid amides

Antinociceptive effect of intrathecal cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 in a rat bone tumor pain model.

Antinociceptive effects induced through the stimulation of spinal cannabinoid type 2 receptors in chronically inflamed mice.

The genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 signaling is beneficial in the restoration of quiescent osteoclast activity in ovariectomized mice

Direct modulation of the outer mitochondrial membrane channel, voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) by cannabidiol: a novel mechanism for cannabinoid-induced cell death

Acute and chronic administration of cannabidiol increases mitochondrial complex and creatine kinase activity in the rat brain

Cannabidiol: An Overview of Some Pharmacological Aspects

Does Cannabidiol Protect Against Adverse Psychological Effects of THC?

Behavioral effects of cannabinoid agents in animals.

Endocannabinoids in liver disease.

CB1 cannabinoid receptors promote oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation and cell death in a murine nephropathy model.

Endocannabinoid chemical biology: a tool for the development of novel therapies.

The endocannabinoid system: its general strategy of action, tools for its pharmacological manipulation and potential therapeutic exploitation.

Inhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a major non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice.

In vitro metabolism of cannabichromene in seven common laboratory animals.

Pharmacological evaluation of the natural constituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabichromene and its modulation by Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol.

In vitro metabolism of cannabinol in rat, mouse, rabbit, guinea pig, hamster, gerbil and cat.

In vitro metabolism of cannabigerol in several mammalian species.

Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease

A Comparison of the Ocular and Central Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabigerol

Comparative in vitro metabolism of the cannabinoids.

How CBD May Cause Cancer Cells to Die in Brain Tumors

Role of 5-HT1 receptors of accumbens shell arenaupon ACPA-induced anxiolytic-like behaviors in rat

Cerebrospinal fluid levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide are reduced in patients with untreated newly diagnosed temporal lobe epilepsy.

Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer.

Endocannabinoids and the haematological system

Cannabidiol, extracted from Cannabis sativa, selectively inhibits inflammatory hypermotility in mice.

Cannabinoids in pancreatic cancer: Correlation with survival and pain

Toward drugs derived from cannabis.

Cannabinoids: Potential Anticancer Agents

Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug.

Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by cannabinoids

Inhibition of Cancer Cell Invasion by Cannabinoids via Increased Expression of Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinases-1

Anticonvulsant properties of linalool

Limonene & How to Manage Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

D-Limonene: safety and clinical applications.

Chemoprevention and therapy of cancer by d-limonene.

Cannabinoids for Cancer Treatment: Progress and Promise

Anticonvulsant properties of linalool in glutamate-related seizure models.

Gastroprotective mechanisms of Citrus lemon (Rutaceae) essential oil and its majority compounds limonene and β-pinene

Cannabidiol arrests onset of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice

Natural Products Evaluated in Neuropathic Pain Models – A Systematic Review

The cannabinoid CB2 receptor-selective phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene exerts analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain

β-Caryophyllene ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in a cannabinoid 2 receptor-dependent manner.

Cannabinoid-2 receptor limits inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and cell death in nephropathy.

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug.

Cannabidiol: from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action.

Cannabinoid modulation of prefrontal–limbic activation during fear extinction learning and recall in humans

Beneficial effects of a Cannabis sativa extract on diabetes induced neuropathy and oxidative stress

Marijuana: The Next Diabetes Drug?

Cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system in lower urinary tract function and dysfunction.

Analysis of Cannabis Seizures in NSW, Australia: Cannabis Potency and Cannabinoid Profile

The cellular processing of the endocannabinoid anandamide and its pharmacological manipulation


Influence of Agroclimatic Conditions on Content of Main Cannabinoids in Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

Feasibility of Industrial Hemp Production in the United States Pacific Northwest

Industrial Hemp: Global Markets and Prices

Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity

Collection of Hemp Research

Historical Timeline – Medical Marijuana

Cannabis as a medicament